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Oxidized Bitumen

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bitumen 115/15 90/40 85/25 95/25 90/15 90/10

What is Oxidized Bitumen?

Bitumen 115/15 and same hard grades like 85/25 and 95/25 are used in a wide variety of ‘industrial’ applications including roofing, flooring, pipe-coating etc. They are produced by passing air through soft bitumen/flux mixtures under controlled temperature conditions. British Standard grades (BS 3690) are normally designated by two numbers representing the mid-points of their softening point and penetration ranges. How to produce Oxidized Bitumen (Blown Bitumen)?

Oxidized bitumen 115/15

Bitumen is  hydrocarbon product produced by removing the lighter fractions (such as liquid petroleum gas, petrol and diesel) from crude oil during the refining process. In North America, Oxidized bitumen 115/15 is commonly known as asphalt binder or asphalt. Bitumen 115/15 is an engineering material and is produced to meet a variety of specifications based upon physical properties.

Production of bitumen 115/15

The first phase of the bitumen  production process consists of the two-stage distillation of crude oil. The distillation is initially performed under atmospheric pressure, with the separation of lighter components of crude oil. The remaining content is then introduced into the vacuum column, where it is subject to fractionation in low pressure. Vacuum residue is collected from the vacuum column, and subsequently subjected to oxidation. Process conditions, such as pressure and temperature, depend on  the  type of  processed raw material and on  the  required properties of  the  end product.

Evaluation of bitumen 115/15

Paving-grade bitumen types used for road construction and surface dressing are covered by a “2+” conformity assessment system, which requires every manufacturer to implement the Factory Production Control system, and this implementation needs to be certified by a FPC Certificate. This Certificate shall be issued by a notified body. The FPC system consists of procedures, regular inspections and tests and/or assessments, while the results serve to evaluate the quality of the finished product. Additionally, the manufacturer must have in place a sample testing plan and he should perform type tests for each product.

Application of bitumen 115/15

It should be heated double temperature against the softening point to be able to have flow and viscosity. Normally it is heating up to 230 while it is bale and if it is inside of bitumen 115/15 bag needed extra temperature to melt the bags and it is approx. 50 centigrade more.

Specification of bitumen 115/15

TEST SPECIFICATION

STANDARD RANGE

TEST METHOD

Specific gravity @25/25 C

1.05 approx.

D-70

Penetration @25C

10/20

D-5

Softening point C

110/120

D-36

Ductility@25C

1.5min

D-113

Loss on heating (wt)%

0.2max

D-6

Flash point C

260min

D-92

Solubility in CS2 (wt)%

99min

D-4

Specific gravity @25/25 C

1.05 approx.

D-70

Oxidized bitumen 95/25

The bitumen products are for paving , also used in asphalts -based paints for corrosion protection of metals, in lining public works structures, adhesives in electrical laminates, base for synthetic turf; typical uses for oxidized  bitumen 95/25 used also for water-proof application and corrosion resistance for pipe coating, Portland cement pavement, hydraulic applications, paint manufacturing, caulking, mastics, and damp proofing. Oxidized bitumen 90/25 should be heated double temperature against the softening point to be able to have flow and viscosity. To use bitumen, surfaces must be dry, clean and free of loose particles, formwork, curing products, irregularities, slurry, etc.

oxidized bitumen 150/50 75/25 75/35

Chemistry blowing process of bitumen 95/25

The bitumen blowing process can be described as a conversion process in which oxidation, dehydrogenation and polymerisation take place. Normally, it is effected with the oxygen present in air, and it is this type of process that is considered here. By subjecting the materials entering and leaving the reaction vessel to a combination of analytical methods, it is possible to draw up an oxygen balance. It has been found that all the oxygen taken up by the oxidized bitumen 95/25 can be accounted for by the formation of hydroxyl, carbonyl, acid and ester groups; no ether oxygen has been detected.

Temperatures of bitumen 95/25

As most bitumen grades are solid at ambient temperature, in order to enable them to be moved through the distribution system as a liquid, they must be heated to temperatures in the range of 1408c to over 2008c, depending on the grade; higher temperatures up to 2308c are applied with an inerted atmosphere for highly oxidised grades. When handled properly, can be reheated or maintained at elevated temperatures for a considerable time without adversely affecting its properties. However, mistreatment of oxidized bitumen 95/25 by overheating or by permitting the material to be exposed to conditions that promote oxidation can adversely affect the properties of the bitumen and may influence the long term performance of mixtures that contain bitumen.

Analyze of bitumen 95-25

TEST SPECIFICATION

STANDARD RANGE

TEST METHOD

Specific gravity @25/25 C

1.05 approx.

D-70

Penetration @25C

20/30

D-5

Softening point C

90/100

D-36

Ductility@25C

1.5min

D-113

Loss on heating (wt)%

0.2max

D-6

Flash point C

260min

D-92

Solubility in CS2 (wt)%

99min

D-4

Specific gravity @25/25 C

1.05 approx.

D-70

Oxidized bitumen 90/40

Bitumen  for producing a road topping, road topping and method for the production of oxidized bitumen 90/40 or asphalt. The invention firstly relates to oxidized bitumen 90/40 or asphalt for the production of road surfaces. Road surfaces are very widely produced in the form of asphalt or a mixture of bitumen with aggregates, such as sand, gravel, grit (round or crushed) or the like. One aim in a road surface is to achieve high wear resistance. Furthermore, the deformation tendency should be low in order that unevenness, such as wheel tracks or the like, if possible does not occur, is slight or only occurs after a long period of use.

Storage of bitumen 90/40

All bitumens should be stored in tanks specifically designed for the purpose. In order to minimise the possible hardening of the oxidized bitumen 90/40 during storage, certain aspects of the design of the tank should be considered. Bitumen storage tanks should be fitted with automatic level indicators together with low and high level alarms to avoid having to dip manually for a reading. Such an approach avoids exposing the hot heater tubes to a potentially combustible or explosive atmosphere should the bitumen level fall below that of the heater tubes. 

Automatic level control also ensures that the tank is not overfilled. Regardless of whether a high level alarm is fitted, a maximum safe filled level for the tank should be predetermined, taking into account the effects of thermal expansion of the bitumen in the tank. Before ordering additional bitumen, it is essential to check that the ullage in the tank is capable of taking the delivery without exceeding the maximum safe working level. Every tank should be clearly labelled with the grade of bitumen it contains. When the grade of bitumen in a tank is changed, it is important to ensure that the tank is empty and relabelled before the new grade is delivered.

hard bitumen 115/15

Application of bitumen 90/40

Bitumen using for isolation and concrete surface coating, pipe coating, asphalt shingle, bottom sealing of carpet, paint and primer, mastic and membrane roof sheet, laminate and adhesive, roofing and flooring and enamel. Also, Car undercoating Automobile industry is specially required for Blown Asphalt. Vehicle undercoating material is based on Bitumen. Oxidized bitumen 90/40 provides excellent waterproof, dust proof and noise proof for automobile undercoating.

Analyze of bitumen 90-40

TEST SPECIFICATION

STANDARD RANGE

TEST METHOD

Specific gravity @25/25 C

1.05 approx.

D-70

Penetration @25C

35/45

D-5

Softening point C

85/95

D-36

Ductility@25C

1.5min

D-113

Loss on heating (wt)%

0.2max

D-6

Flash point C

260min

D-92

Solubility in CS2 (wt)%

99min

D-4

Specific gravity @25/25 C

1.05 approx.

D-70

Oxidized bitumen 90/15

Bitumen is a mixture of organic compounds composed of linear aliphatic, cycloaliphatic and aromatic derivatives. Linear aliphatic compounds are saturated linear carbon compounds. Cycloaliphatic compounds are ring structures that are composed of saturated carbon atoms, or cyclic structures that have a low number of unsaturated groups and aromatic compounds are those compounds that have at least one aromatic ring. The wide range of compounds and the varying nature of these compounds from oxidized bitumen 90/15 to bitumen make their individual isolation and identification a challenging proposition. The constituents of bitumen are usually separated into classes based on parameters such as solubility, polarity or hydrodynamic size.

Sampling of  bitumen 90/15

Sampling of hot bitumen 90-15 is particularly hazardous because of the risk of heat burns from spills and splashes of the material. It is therefore essential that appropriate protective clothing is worn. The area should be well lit, and safe access to and egress from the sample point should be provided. Gantry access should be provided where samples are required from the tanks of vehicles, as climbing on top of vehicles should be avoided.

Life cycle assessment of bitumen 90-15

Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool to investigate the environmental aspects and potential impact of a Bitumen 90/15, process or activity by identifying and quantifying energy and material flows. LCA covers the entire life cycle, including extraction of the raw material, manufacturing, transport and distribution, product use, service and maintenance, and disposal (recycling, incineration or landfill). It is a complete cradle-to-grave analysis focusing on the environmental input (based on ecological effects) and resource use.

Analyze of bitumen 90-15

 
TEST SPECIFICATION

STANDARD RANGE

TEST METHOD

Specific gravity @25/25 C

1.05 approx.

D-70

Penetration @25C

10/20

D-5

Softening point C

85/95

D-36

Ductility@25C

1.5min

D-113

Loss on heating (wt)%

0.2max

D-6

Flash point C

260min

D-92

Solubility in CS2 (wt)%

99min

D-4

Specific gravity @25/25 C

1.05 approx.

D-70

Oxidized bitumen 90-10

It is known to use bituminous compositions as pavings and coverings for a variety of surfaces, for example, roads and air fields. Such compositions comprise mixtures of aggregate and oxidized bitumen 90/10 in specific proportions, and are generally laid and compacted while hot to provide a dense and durable surface. For many applications, bitumen provides a sufficiently durable and adhesive binder for the aggregate. For high load applications, however, additives may be added to the bitumen in order to improve its mechanical properties.

Classification methods Bitumen 90-10

Constituents can also be divided into groups based on their polarity. This is accomplished by using an ion exchange chromatography (IEC) technique. This technique separated bitumen into five components, namely strong acid, weak acid, strong base, weak base and the neutral fraction. The structural analysis of these components was carried out by means of elemental analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, while the molecular weight of the fractions was determined by vapour pressure osmometry. The speciation and distribution of functional groups within the fractions and the rheology of the individual fractions obtained from a oxidized bitumen 90/10 sample were also investigated.

Elemental analysis of asphalt 90-10

Bitumen is largely composed of hydrocarbon molecules, with some heterocyclic species and functional groups containing sulfur, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Bitumen also contains trace amounts of metals such as nickel, vanadium, iron, calcium and magnesium, which occur in the form of metallic salts, oxides or in porphyrin structures. 

Porphyrins are complex organic compounds that occur naturally: for example, haemoglobin, found in blood, and chlorophyll, found in green plants, are examples of porphyrins associated with metal atoms. Porphyrins contain four nitrogen atoms, each of which can bond with a metal atom to result in a metalloporphyrin. Elemental analysis of bitumen manufactured from a variety of crude oils shows that most bitumen 90/10 contains carbon 82–88% hydrogen 8–11% oxygen 0–1.5% sulfur 0–6% nitrogen 0–1% It has been known since the 1930s that bitumens contain metalloporphyrins, from analytical work that identified iron and vanadium and, consequently, established the link between marine plant chlorophyll and petroleum genesis.

Oxidized bitumen 90-10 structure

Bitumen is traditionally regarded as a colloidal system consisting of high molecular weight asphaltene micelles dispersed or dissolved in a lower molecular weight oily medium. The micelles are considered to be asphaltenes together with an absorbed sheath of aromatic resins that act as a stabilising solvating layer. Away from the centre of the micelle, there is a gradual transition to less polar aromatic resins, these layers extending outwards to the less aromatic oily dispersion medium. In the presence of sufficient quantities of resins and aromatics of adequate solvating power, the asphaltenes are fully peptise, and the resulting micelles have good mobility within the bitumen.

Analyze of oxidized bitumen 90-10

TEST SPECIFICATION

STANDARD RANGE

TEST METHOD

Specific gravity @25/25 C

1.05 approx.

D-70

Penetration @25C

5/15

D-5

Softening point C

85/95

D-36

Ductility@25C

1.5min

D-113

Loss on heating (wt)%

0.2max

D-6

Flash point C

260min

D-92

Solubility in CS2 (wt)%

99min

D-4

Specific gravity @25/25 C

1.05 approx.

D-70

Oxidized bitumen 85-40

It is known to use bituminous compositions as pavings and coverings for a variety of surfaces, for example, roads and air fields. Such compositions comprise mixtures of aggregate and bitumen in specific proportions, and are generally laid and compacted while hot to provide a dense and durable surface. For many applications, bitumen provides a sufficiently durable and adhesive binder for the aggregate. For high load applications, however, additives may be added to the oxidized bitumen 85/40 in order to improve its mechanical properties. Various additives have been proposed for this purpose, including polymers such as ethylene and vinyl acetate co-polymers, random or block copolymers of styrene and conjugated dienes.

Modifying of bitumen 85-40

In Europe, bitumens and polymer modified bitumens for asphalts are manufactured to three standards  covering penetration and viscosity grade bitumens, covering hard paving grade bitumens, covering polymer modified bitumens (pmbs). Bitumens for industrial uses are specified by, covering oxidized bitumen 85/40 , covering hard industrial oxidized bitumens 85/40. The key feature of all of these specifications is a combination of penetration and softening point and, in the case of the soft bitumen grades, viscosity.

 These properties are generally used to designate the bitumen grade required by the purchaser. Cut-back and fluxed bitumens are bitumens blended with more or less volatile hydrocarbon components (fuels), mainly kerosene. They are characterised by a viscosity specification, EN 15322:2013 (BSI, 2013) providing the framework for such products. While such products remain popular in some parts of the world.

Oxidized bitumen 85-40 quality

Bitumen quality Over many years, Shell has investigated the relationship between laboratory measured properties of penetration grade bitumens and their performance in asphalts on the road. The ability to predict the long term behaviour of asphalts becomes more important as traffic loading has increased and performance requirements have become ever more demanding. Performance on the road depends on many factors, including the design, the nature of the application and the quality of the individual components. 

In volumetric terms, oxidized bitumen 85/40 is a relatively minor component of an asphalt, but it has a crucial role – acting both as a durable binder and conferring visco-elastic properties on the asphalt. Essentially, satisfactory performance of a bitumen on the road can be ensured if four properties are controlled: Rheology, Cohesion, Adhesion, Durability.

Specification of bitumen 85-40

 
TEST SPECIFICATION

STANDARD RANGE

TEST METHOD

Specific gravity @25/25 C

1.05 approx.

D-70

Penetration @25C

35/40

D-5

Softening point C

80/90

D-36

Ductility@25C

1.5min

D-113

Loss on heating (wt)%

0.2max

D-6

Flash point C

260min

D-92

Solubility in CS2 (wt)%

99min

D-4

Specific gravity @25/25 C

1.05 approx.

D-70

Oxidized bitumen 85/30

Oxidized bitumen are used almost entirely for industrial applications (roofing, flooring, mastics, pipe coatings, paints, etc.). They are specified and designated by reference to both the softening point and penetration tests: for example, oxidized bitumen 85/30 is an oxidised grade bitumen with a softening point of 85 + 58C and a penetration of 40 + 5 dmm. bitumens also have to comply with solubility, loss on heating and flash point criteria (BSI, 2009b). The softening points of oxidised grades of bitumen are considerably higher than those of the corresponding penetration grade bitumens, and therefore the temperature susceptibility.

Polymer modified bitumen 85/30

During the last three decades, pmbs have become increasingly popular as a replacement for penetration grade bitumen 85/30 in the upper layers of asphalt pavements. Clients usually do so because of the superior properties of pmbs. Although they represent advanced technology binders, they are still designated both by the penetration range and a minimum softening point: for example, 45/80-55 is a PMB with a penetration of 45–80 dmm and a softening point of at least 558C.

 Apart from the test methods that apply to these traditional methods of nomenclature, the specification framework EN 14023:2010 (BSI, 2010a) includes in its Annex B several more sophisticated tests as key performance parameters that need to be validated: It has been shown that the softening point of pmbs has a different meaning as in the case of penetration grade bitumens, as it is strongly influenced by the type and amount of polymer added to the bitumen.

Oxidation and evaporative hardening of bitumen 85/30

Oxidation – reaction with oxygen from the air – is regarded as the main cause of ageing of bitumen 85/30. It is strongly accelerated by increasing temperature and increasing surface area. Also, the bitumen compositio/n influences the rate of oxidation. It has been shown that asphaltene-rich bitumens tend to age quicker than oxidized bitumen 85/30  with low asphaltene contents. Finally, the reaction time determines the extent of oxidative ageing. This is why the conditions during the preparation of the asphalt (i.e. At temperatures exceeding 1208C) need to be controlled, and the minimum mixing time and temperature should always be aimed at in order to minimise oxidation. Looking at the mixture, high void contents or even interconnected voids (as in an uncompacted mix or in a porous asphalt) favour the access of oxygen.

Analyze of bitumen 85-30

TEST SPECIFICATION

STANDARD RANGE

TEST METHOD

Specific gravity @25/25 C

1.05 approx.

D-70

Penetration @25C

25/35

D-5

Softening point C

80/90

D-36

Ductility@25C

1.5min

D-113

Loss on heating (wt)%

0.2max

D-6

Flash point C

260min

D-92

Solubility in CS2 (wt)%

99min

D-4

Specific gravity @25/25 C

1.05 approx.

D-70

Oxidized bitumen 85/25

Bitumen is hydrocarbon product produced by removing the lighter fractions (such as liquid petroleum gas, petrol and diesel) from crude oil during the refining process. In North America, Oxidized bitumen 85/25 is commonly known as asphalt binder or asphalt. Also, Bitumen is produced from petroleum and primarily used for the production of asphalt. Its consistency depends largely at hot temperatures it is viscous and larger chemical compounds such as aliphatic, petroleum resins, and asphaltenes move freely in the mass. Since asphalt and bitumen are used for road construction as well as for waterproofing work, the longest possible product lifetime is desirable.

Tests of oxidized bitumen 85/25 on the mixture

The hardening due to the oxidation and evaporation of a thin film of bitumen 85/25 in contact with aggregate is assessed by two mixture tests: the hot mixture storage test and the change in the softening point of the bitumen during commercial asphalt manufacture. The hot mixture storage test simulates ageing conditions during mixing and hot storage. 

A prescribed mixture is manufactured in the laboratory, and a specifiedquantity of this mixture is stored for 16 h at 1608C in a sealed tin. Thus, the volume of air entrained in the sample is known and is constant from test to test. The bitumen is recovered from both the mixed and stored material, and the penetration and softening points are determined from samples of bitumen recovered from these two materials.

Standard specification tests for bitumen 85/25

As a wide variety of bitumens is manufactured, it is necessary to have tests to characterise different grades. In several countries, the two tests often used to specify different grades of bitumen are the needle penetration test and the softening point test. Although they are both empirical tests, it is possible to estimate important engineering properties from the results, including high temperature viscosity and the stiffness modulus. The use of the penetration test for characterising the consistency of bitumen dates from the late nineteenth century.

Analyze of  bitumen 85-25

TEST SPECIFICATION

STANDARD RANGE

TEST METHOD

Specific gravity @25/25 C

1.05 approx.

D-70

Penetration @25C

20/30

D-5

Softening point C

80/90

D-36

Ductility@25C

1.5min

D-113

Loss on heating (wt)%

0.2max

D-6

Flash point C

260min

D-92

Solubility in CS2 (wt)%

99min

D-4

Specific gravity @25/25 C

1.05 approx.

D-70

Oxidized bitumen 75/35

Bitumen is produced from petroleum used for the production of asphalt. Oxidized bitumen 75/35  are also used for road construction as well as for waterproofing work.

Uses of oxidized bitumen 75/35

Bitumen is produced from petroleum used for the production of asphalt, chemical, fuel, paints, lacquers, varnishes, paper-pulp-board, textile processing, also oxidized bitumen 75/25 used for road construction, pavement, crack seal and repairmen, civil works, roofing, construction industries; sealing and insulating buildings, adhesive, construction materials additive, dust-binding, coating, insulating and impregnating agent, make rubber and plastic products.

Engineering properties of bitumen 75/35

The use of bitumen as such, or as a binder in diverse composite materials, is based on its mechanical properties and on the way these properties depend on the loading time and temperature. Bitumen 75/35 are manufactured in a variety of grades with different mechanical properties to meet the demands of road and industrial applications. 

For the civil engineer and the industrial bitumen user, it is of considerable value to define the mechanical properties of bitumen in terms that are analogous to the elastic moduli of rigid materials. For the structural design of pavements, it is essential to be able to measure and predict the fundamental mechanical characteristics of paving materials. The stiffness modulus of an asphalt depends on the stiffness modulus of the bitumen and the volume fractions of the different mixture components (aggregates, bitumen, air). The stiffness modulus of bitumen is also a suitable parameter for the breaking properties of the bitumen itself and of the asphalts prepared with it

Specification of bitumen 75-35

 
TEST SPECIFICATION

STANDARD RANGE

TEST METHOD

Specific gravity @25/25 C

1.05 approx.

D-70

Penetration @25C

20/30

D-5

Softening point C

70/80

D-36

Ductility@25C

1.5min

D-113

Loss on heating (wt)%

0.2max

D-6

Flash point C

260min

D-92

Solubility in CS2 (wt)%

99min

D-4

Specific gravity @25/25 C

1.05 approx.

D-70

Bitumen 75/25

Bitumen is a naturally occurring in hydrocarbon, as typically found in asphalt, tar, pitch and asphaltite. A class of manufactured, amorphous, solid, semi-solid or viscous, cementitious materials. Oxidized bitumen 75/25 materials are typically obtained from asphalt or coal tar, asphalt can be found in nature or obtained as a by-product of crude oil refining, and coal tar and pitch are produced by cracking distillation of coal.

Polymer modified bitumen 75/25

On the majority of roads, conventional bitumen grades possess satisfactory adhesion and mechanical properties for use in asphalt pavements for the vast majority of traffic and climatic conditions that are encountered. However, demands made on roads increase year by year and, in some cases, the limits of performance of conventional bitumen 75/25 have been reached mainly due to Increases in rainfall and temperature variations, Increases in axle weight, tyre pressures and freight movement and leading to a higher maintenance requirement and consequent increased costs for road owners

role of bitumen 75/25 modifiers in asphalt pavements

Traditional bitumens, derived from the distillation and/or blowing of crude oils, possess adequate performance characteristics, but increasing the high temperature performance can sometimes lessen the low temperature performance properties of the bitumen 75/25. The development of steps to counter this effect has been the incentive that has driven the early stages of the development of pmbs for use in roads. 

Modified binders are binders whose properties have been changed by the use of a chemical agent that, when added to the original bitumen, alters its chemical structure and physical and/or mechanical properties. As the bituminous binder is responsible for the visco-elastic behaviour of asphalts, it plays a large part in determining many aspects of road performance, particularly resistance to deformation and cracking, the two most common reasons for the structural failure of thicker pavements.

specification of bitumen 75-25

 
TEST SPECIFICATION

STANDARD RANGE

TEST METHOD

Specific gravity @25/25 C

1.05 approx.

D-70

Penetration @25C

20/30

D-5

Softening point C

70/80

D-36

Ductility@25C

1.5min

D-113

Loss on heating (wt)%

0.2max

D-6

Flash point C

260min

D-92

Solubility in CS2 (wt)%

99min

D-4

Specific gravity @25/25 C

1.05 approx.

D-70

Oxidized bitumen 105-35

Asphalt is Semi Solid grade of pure petroleum. Oxidized bitumen 105/35 manufactured by air-blowing through an asphalt flux. Special physical properties of its grade can be used in different applications in the construction, roads and water proofing. Oxidized bitumen 105/35 is based on petroleum bitumen which is made by blowing bitumen 60/70 by very hot air. The numbers relate to the midpoint of the material’s softening point and penetration respectively.

The most usage of bitumen 105-35

The most majority of bitumen 105/35 used in asphalt for road construction is conventional bitumen; that is why it is often known as paving grade. The term ‘pen grade’ is short for penetration grade, and reflects the fact that this type of bitumen 105/35 product is often classified (in Europe and parts of Asia) using the penetration test. The term straight run refers to the fact that this type of bitumen is often produced direct from the vacuum distillation process, without any further modification. Current estimates put the world use of bitumen at approximately 102 million tonnes per year (Eurobitume and the Asphalt Institute, 2011), and about 85% of all the bitumen produced is used in asphalt for the construction of roads and other paved areas.

Oxidation process of bitumen 105-35

Often by the correct selection of the crude oil feed and operating conditions, oxidized bitumen 105/35 complying with a particular specification can be manufactured directly from the distillation process. If required, the physical properties of the short residue can be further modified by ‘air blowing’. This is an oxidation process that involves passing air through the short residue, either on a batch or a continuous basis, with the short residue raised to a temperature between 240 and 3208c. 

The main effect of blowing is that it converts some of the relatively low molecular weight ‘maltenes’ into relatively higher molecular weight ‘asphaltenes’. The result is a reduction in the penetration of the bitumen with a comparatively greater increase in the softening point, which has the effect of improving the lower temperature susceptibility of the air-blown bitumen.

Analyze of oxidized bitumen 105-35

TEST SPECIFICATION

STANDARD RANGE

TEST METHOD

Specific gravity @25/25 C

1.05 approx.

D-70

Penetration @25C

30/40

D-5

Softening point C

100/110

D-36

Ductility@25C

1.5min

D-113

Loss on heating (wt)%

0.2max

D-6

Flash point C

260min

D-92

Solubility in CS2 (wt)%

99min

D-4

Specific gravity @25/25 C

1.05 approx.

D-70

Oxidized bitumen 150-5

Bitumen is manufactured during the distillation of crude oil.  Generally agreed that crude oil originates from the remains of marine organisms and vegetable matter deposited with mud and fragments of rock on the ocean bed. Oxidized bitumen 150/5 are used in applications to protect structures from water, such as roofing, pipeline coating and road construction applications.

The manufacture of oxidized bitumen 150-5

Most bitumen emulsions are manufactured by a continuous process using a colloid mill (a machine used to reduce the particle size of a solid in suspension in a liquid or to reduce the droplet size of a liquid suspended in another liquid). This equipment consists of a high-speed rotor that revolves at 1000– 6000 revs/min in a stator. The clearance between the rotor and the stator is typically 0.25–0.50 mm and is usually adjustable. Oxidized bitumen 150/5 and emulsifier solutions are fed separately but simultaneously into the colloid mill, the temperatures of the two components being critical to the process. The viscosity of the bitumen entering the colloid mill should not exceed 0.2 Pa.s (2 poise). Bitumen 150/5 temperatures in the range 100–1408C are used in order to achieve this viscosity with the penetration grade bitumens that are normally used in emulsions.

bitumen 115/15 in carton

The uses of oxidized bitumen 150-5

The vast majority of bitumen is used by the construction industry, as a constituent of products used in paving and roofing. Excellent waterproofing characteristics and thermoplastic behaviour make it ideal for a wide range of applications. At elevated temperatures (typically between 100 and 2008C) it acts like a viscous liquid, and can be mixed with other components and manipulated and formed as required. Once cooled, it is an inert solid that is durable and hydrophobic (repels water). Various terms are used to describe conventional bitumen such as straight run, paving grade and penetration grade (or ‘pen grade’). When people use these terms they normally mean grades of bitumen 105/5 that can be produced at a conventional refinery in a relatively simple way.

Specification of bitumen 105-5

TEST SPECIFICATION STANDARD RANGE TEST METHOD
Specific gravity @25/25 C 1.05 approx. D-70
Penetration @25C 4/6 D-5
Softening point C 145/155 D-36
Ductility@25C 1.5min D-113
Loss on heating (wt)% 0.2max D-6
Flash point C 260min D-92
Solubility in CS2 (wt)% 99min D-4
Specific gravity @25/25 C 1.05 approx. D-70